You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
Alexander Kolotov 924e0ad79c
Merge pull request #121 from andogro/ag-README-updates
5 years ago
bridge Merge pull request #82 from yrashk/required-signatures 5 years ago
cli Problem: insecure RPCs are subject to MITM attacks 5 years ago
contracts Problem: tracking RequiredSignaturesChanged is complicated 5 years ago
examples fixed names of configuration parameters in transactions section 5 years ago
integration-tests Problem: insecure RPCs are subject to MITM attacks 5 years ago
res res 6 years ago
tests Problem: no functionality exists to dynamically fetch gas-prices 5 years ago
tools tools/ improve wording 6 years ago
truffle verifySignatures -> hasEnoughValidSignatures and make it return bool 5 years ago
.editorconfig fixed signature validation in solidity, added truffle tests for it 6 years ago
.gitignore merge from master branch 5 years ago
.travis.yml Problem: Travis CI job still takes too long and times out 5 years ago
Cargo.lock Problem: hard to check which version the bridge is 5 years ago
Cargo.toml add integration tests to workspace 5 years ago
Makefile Problem: bridge should not deploy its contracts anymore 5 years ago Added note regarding non-production status 5 years ago Problem: not clear what 0.3.0 has in it 5 years ago

POA-Ethereum Bridge

Join the chat at - Columns and their card count

NOTE: This repository is not currently supported and is not used in production. Please see the Token Bridge repo at for the current production version

Software, written in Rust, used by POA bridge validators to faciliate proof-of-authority based bridging of POA native coins to tokens on another Ethereum-based blockchain.

The validators work with the POA bridge contracts to convert ether on one chain into the same amount of ERC20 tokens on the other and back.

This software was designed to work in conjunction with the following projects. Current compatability is unknown.


The bridge connects two chains (home and foreign). When a user deposits ether into the bridge contract contract on home they get the same amount of ERC20 tokens on foreign, and they can convert them back as well.





Difference from Parity Bridge

Although the POA bridge was initially based on the Parity Bridge, it was re-worked to include:

  • support of a gas price oracle introduced;
  • RPC is used instead of IPC;
  • sending of bridge approvals enhanced, increasing performance dramatically;
  • error handling improved to be compatible with Linux systemd facility;
  • bridge configuration parameters are fetched from bridge contracts so they don't need to be synchronized among several bridge instances;
  • bridge contracts were segregated into the separate project and their deployment is independent from the Rust side of the bridge. Now bridge contracts:
    • are separate from ERC20
    • are upgradable; you don't need to re-configure bridge instances and DApps to use new version of contracts
    • allow a set of validators to be changed without neeeding to re-deploy thebridge contracts

How to build

Requires rust and cargo: installation instructions.

Requires solc to be in $PATH: installation instructions.

Assuming you've cloned the bridge (git clone, run

cd poa-bridge

and install ../target/release/bridge in your $PATH.


bridge --config config.toml --database db.toml
  • --config - location of the configuration file. configuration file must exist
  • --database - location of the database file.

Bridge forces TLS for RPC connections by default. However, in some limited scenarios (like local testing), this might be undesirable. In this case, you can use the --allow-insecure-rpc-endpoints option to allow non-TLS endpoints to be used. Ensure, however, that this option is not going to be used in production.

Exit Status Codes

Code Meaning
0 Success
1 Unknwon error
2 I/O error
3 Shutdown requested
4 Insufficient funds
5 Gas too low
6 Gas price is too low
7 Nonce reused
10 Cannot connect
11 Connection lost
12 Bridge crashed
20 RPC error

Configuration file example

keystore = "/path/to/keystore"

account = "0x006e27b6a72e1f34c626762f3c4761547aff1421"
password = "home_password.txt"
rpc_host = "http://localhost"
rpc_port = 8545
required_confirmations = 0
poll_interval = 5
request_timeout = 60
default_gas_price = 1_000_000_000 # 1 GWEI

account = "0x006e27b6a72e1f34c626762f3c4761547aff1421"
password = "foreign_password.txt"
rpc_host = "http://localhost"
rpc_port = 9545
required_confirmations = 8
poll_interval = 15
request_timeout = 60
gas_price_oracle_url = ""
gas_price_speed = "instant"
gas_price_timeout = 10
default_gas_price = 10_000_000_000 # 10 GWEI


deposit_relay = { gas = 300000 }
withdraw_relay = { gas = 300000 }
withdraw_confirm = { gas = 300000 }


  • keystore - path to a keystore directory with JSON keys

home/foreign options

  • home/foreign.account - authority address on the home (required)
  • home/foreign.password - path to the file containing a password for the validator's account (to decrypt the key from the keystore)
  • home/foreign.rpc_host - RPC host (required)
  • home/foreign.rpc_port - RPC port (defaults to 8545)
  • home/foreign.required_confirmations - number of confirmations required to consider transaction final on home (default: 12)
  • home/foreign.poll_interval - specify how often home node should be polled for changes (in seconds, default: 1)
  • home/foreign.request_timeout - specify request timeout (in seconds, default: 3600)
  • home/foreign.gas_price_oracle_url - the URL used to query the current gas-price for the home and foreign nodes, this service is known as the gas-price Oracle. This config option defaults to None if not supplied in the User's config TOML file. If this config value is None, no Oracle gas-price querying will occur, resulting in the config value for home/foreign.default_gas_price being used for all gas-prices.
  • home/foreign.gas_price_timeout - the number of seconds to wait for an HTTP response from the gas price oracle before using the default gas price. Defaults to 10 seconds.
  • home/foreign.gas_price_speed - retrieve the gas-price corresponding to this speed when querying from an Oracle. Defaults to fast. The available values are: "instant", "fast", "standard", and "slow".
  • home/foreign.default_gas_price - the default gas price (in WEI) used in transactions with the home or foreign nodes. The default_gas_price is used when the Oracle cannot be reached. The default value is 15_000_000_000 WEI (ie. 15 GWEI).
  • home/foreign.concurrent_http_requests - the number of concurrent HTTP requests allowed in-flight (default: 64)

transaction options

  • transaction.deposit_relay.gas - specify how much gas should be consumed by deposit relay
  • transaction.withdraw_confirm.gas - specify how much gas should be consumed by withdraw confirm
  • transaction.withdraw_relay.gas - specify how much gas should be consumed by withdraw relay

Database file format

home_contract_address = "0x49edf201c1e139282643d5e7c6fb0c7219ad1db7"
foreign_contract_address = "0x49edf201c1e139282643d5e7c6fb0c7219ad1db8"
checked_deposit_relay = 120
checked_withdraw_relay = 121
checked_withdraw_confirm = 121

all fields are required

  • home_contract_address - address of the bridge contract on home chain
  • foreign_contract_address - address of the bridge contract on foreign chain
  • checked_deposit_relay - number of the last block for which an authority has relayed deposits to the foreign
  • checked_withdraw_relay - number of the last block for which an authority has relayed withdraws to the home
  • checked_withdraw_confirm - number of the last block for which an authority has confirmed withdraw